10/2015

List of Content: 

ANNIVERSARY REFLECTIONS

Marek J. Malinowski

Forecast of the evolution of civilizations in the 21st century perspective. (Personal reflections)

Edyta Pietrzak

Few words about Civitas Hominibus

Elżbieta Dul-Ledwosińska

From the author of covers Civitas Hominibus

ARTICLES – DISCUSSIONS – ESSAYS

Andrzej Chodubski

Individual and civilisation transformations in the 21st century

Janusz Ostrowski

Global society and culture aspect in the area of international relations

Bogdan Ekstowicz

Processes and social movements at the turn of XX and XXI century in the world

Andrzej Wojtczak

Health care in Poland today and the prognosis for the next decade

Małgorzata Joanna Bielecka

Creating new forms of community and enterprise in Silesia

Edyta Pietrzak

The evolution of the idea of civil society and the crisis of rationalism

Ilona Balcerczyk

Reflections on the civil society

Łukasz Zaorski-Sikora

Education processes and civil competences

Kamila Lasocińska

The Need to Support Creative Competencies during Mid-Adulthood — A Consideration of Autobiographical Workshops

Makary Krzysztof Stasiak

Assistance model of creative development of the individual as a propound indicator of modern social work

Rosa Branca Figueiredo

Soyinka’s use of satire to forecast the evolution of civilizations: the power drive is the supreme evil

Anna Kronenberg

Polish women’s emigration and migrant literature — from social to literary evolution

FRAGMENTS OF AHE STUDENTS’ MASTER THESES

Krzysztof Czarnecki

Source, genesis and essence of the Salazare doctrine in Portugal in the twentieth century

Elżbieta Dziambor

Polish Special Forces mission in the Polish security system on the international stage

Patrycja Świątczak

The role of local governments in the prevention and resolution of alcohol problems

Piotr Witek

Availability of Polish e-government for visually impaired

Abstracts: 

Andrzej Chodubski

Individual and civilisation transformations in the 21st century

This article argues that a significant feature of modern civilisation is individualism. Individualism is present throughout cultural life. Here the focus is on the ‘participatory individual’ - someone who is involved in cultural life and adheres to norms of civilisation. Such an individual is oriented towards technical and scientific progress, legal solutions, modern education and is a key agent of change within contemporary society. Threats to civilisation are also considered in this article.

Keywords: Participatory individual, global civic community, civilisation threats, globalisation.

Janusz Ostrowski

Global society and culture aspect in the area of international relations

This article aims to expand the debate on the development of global civil society in the context of globalisation It is argued that changes concomitant to globalisation necessitate the evaluation of international processes, as well as a consideration of the policy positions of nation-states. Processes of disintegration may counter integrationary processes. Current global challenges include the fight against global warming, terrorism, international crime, religious fundamentalism, mass migration among others. In relation to these issues, civil society has a role to play.

The nation-state can no longer be considered as the sole actor in the arena of international relations. Transnational corporations, including financial institutions, exercise increasing influence. There is scope for the further engagement of civil society to counter processes of disintegration. Civil society can help develop and support actions at a variety of scales that foster global governance.

Keywords: democracy, globalization, society , free market , capitalism.

Bogdan Ekstowicz

Processes and social movements at the turn of XX and XXI century in the world

This article offers an assessment of ‘social movements’. ‘Social movements’ include a diverse range of actors pursuing a variety of goals. For instance, ‘social movements’ may focus on combating gender discrimination or promoting peace. This article considers the establishment of certain ‘social movements’ and provides an evaluation of their significance.

Keywords: social movements, organization, strategy, politics, law, changes.

Andrzej Wojtczak

Health care in Poland today and the prognosis for the next decade

Forecasts of health and demographic trends indicate a slower rate of increase in the global population. In the industrially developed countries, an increase in the average length of life indicates continuing improvements in the health of the population. In Poland, on average, men can expect to live to 73 and women to 82. In Europe the increase of the average length of life is compensated by the decrease of fertility index, which is below 1.6. The expected number of those 65 and over will reach 23.8% of the population in 2030. In Poland the number of people above 65 is expected to reach more than 8 million.

In the next decade in Poland, the hierarchy of health problems will be similar to the present one, where almost half of all mortalities are caused by cardiovascular diseases, mainly heart and brain infarctions. The second cause of death among men and the primary one among women are neoplasmatic diseases. Road accidents and traumatic injuries will continue to be a growing health and economic problem. In relation to young people, the challenges over the next decades include inhibiting the increase in mental health issues and preventing epidemics of obesity.

In the next decade the further development of diagnostic and therapeutic methods will be observed. Specific drugs will be carried directly to the diseased organs. Less invasive surgical methods especially in the case of brain surgery will develop further. In spite of the constant progress of genome mapping, possibilities of gene therapy still will be very limited. Increased knowledge of brain function should permit longer preservation of older people’s intellectual abilities, the recovery of lost memory as well as the recovery of lost hearing and vision. The treatment of mental diseases will also progress.

The great challenge for health care administrators will be securing sufficient services for older people and to increase the number of well functioning preventive and health promotion programmes necessary for the growing number of professionally active seniors. The great challenge will be changing the attitudes of people and to persuade them to take care of their own health, avoid risks and to adopt healthy lifestyles. The recently passed Parliamentary Public Health Act will hopefully create the platform for a new impulse for activities that seek to improve the health of Polish citizens.

Keywords: health care, prognosis, Poland.

Małgorzata Joanna Bielecka

Creating new forms of community and enterprise in Silesia

In this article factors affecting local and regional development are described. The focus is on human capital and enterprise. Research on the relationship between society and human capital has suggested that the existence of a particular type of human capital - creative people – is crucial for the economic development of cities and regions. This contention is investigated in relation to Dąbrowa Górnicza, a city located in the Silesian province.

Keywords: human capital, local development, innovation, enterprise, creativity, creative people.

Edyta Pietrzak

The evolution of the idea of civil society and the crisis of rationalism

In the contemporary world the Enlightenment’s fascination with the idea of rationalization is in crisis. The rational order is not in a position to ensure the safety of a contemporary human being and protect him/her from anxiety. Therefore, we look at the idea of civil society in the context of the crisis of rationalism. Arguments in support of this thesis are presented here in the form of a triad. The first part of the article refers to the role of reason in shaping the idea of civil society, the second part looks at the crisis of rationalism, and the third part is devoted to the search for new ideas of civil society.

Keywords: civil society, rationalism, idea.

Ilona Balcerczyk

Reflections on the civil society

This article discusses the problems associated with civil society. The introduction offers a brief review of how the term civil society has been understood over the centuries, with particular emphasis on contemporary notions. The author presents an original concept of civil society and refers to developments in the city of Lodz. This new concept draws on the ideas of civil society developed by John Paul II and Vaclav Havel. The article provides an analysis of research conducted by the author in 2013-2014 among representatives of Lodz non-governmental organizations.

Keywords: civil society, subjectivity, John Paul II, Vaclav Havel.

Łukasz Zaorski-Sikora

Education processes and civil competences

It is a truism to state that today we are facing the necessity of changing the education paradigm. Europe and Poland depend on whether knowledge we acquire is up-to-date, adequate and applicable to solving current and future problems. Nowadays nobody doubts the fact that it is essential not only to care about the development of skills and knowledge but also to shape certain attitudes. In this paper, the author highlights the benefits of implementing a ‘project method’ within the framework of education processes and signals implications important for forming civic attitudes.

Keywords: project method, civic attitudes, reform of the educational system in the European Union.

Kamila Lasocińska

The Need to Support Creative Competencies during Mid-Adulthood - A Consideration of Autobiographical Workshops

In my article I draw attention to the need to develop people's creative competencies during mid-adulthood. I emphasize the specificity of referring to adults' creativity at this stage of life. I point to the possibility and the importance of integrating the content of adult education with autobiography to stimulate creative thinking and the process of self-creation. Autobiographical workshops can help develop adults' creativity in the context of conscious reflection relating to personal experiences. These workshops may also inhibit (personal) crises and provide support to overcome them.

Keywords: creative competences, self-creation, the average adulthood, autobiography workshop, self-development, mid-life transformation.

Makary Krzysztof Stasiak

Assistance model of creative development of the individual as a propound indicator of modern social work

People aware of their subjectivity notice their reflections about the world and their valuation. Self-aware people notice the way their psyche functions. Such an individual can influence, change his/her perception of reality and plan actions. An unaware person is not able to change his/her dispositions which are the game they play. A person aware of the fact that s/he is an autonomous subject and plays the game with the surrounding is, on the other hand, able to ask questions about the quality of this game. This way s/he can undertake work to improve it. Improving the game results in the increase of the efficiency of action. The moment of the increase of the action efficiency is called a creative act for the person acting. Creative act is invariably accompanied by a change, reorganisation of the inside of the organism. In the creative act, the organism displays new behaviour. Such new behaviour is a creative act, with the use of which the individual obtains the same objectives in a more effective and efficient way.

Keywords: social work, human, society, socialization.

Rosa Branca Figueiredo

Soyinka’s use of satire to forecast the evolution of civilizations: the power drive is the supreme evil

“Wole Soyinka is a playwright and poet who in a wide cultural perspective and poetic overtones fashions the drama of existence” – this is how the Swedish Academy presents Soyinka, the recipient of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1986. The academy here reaffirms the literary and social/ethical values of Soyinka’s works which were published before he was awarded the prize, but the comment could have been made with equal truth of his works published after the award, especially his play From Zia With Love (1992) which is a work of a “graffiti” virtuoso. It is Soyinka’s post-Nobel masterpiece, still in the tradition of Soyinka’s activist humanism, altruistic defence of human rights, and the preservation of the dignity of man in a humane world of “live and let live”. This play is deliberately overloaded with apparent dramatic tautology to further emphasize the author’s consistency and irrepressible spirit of commitment.

In his primarily satirical theatre Wole Soyinka’s gaze is firmly fixed on contemporary social and political life, and what he sees, before all else, is the ruthless exercise and abuse of power. Power has, in fact, an obsessive fascination for Soyinka, and a double face. In its creative, spiritual form he is its celebrant, even as he recognizes that the force of its creative energy may take into destructive excess. But in its aspect as political or social control, the power drive is the supreme evil, which he sees as being everywhere and at all times deeply corrupting and destructive.

What we intend to make clear in this paper is that Soyinka has a well-deserved reputation as the most consistently trenchant satirist among African writers. As a national (and even continental) moralist, he has throughout his career written plays which directly focus on current social and political evils and heap mockery on their perpetrators.

Satire is, in fact, one of the ways by which Soyinka, as it were, pounces on the various issues with which he engages. The focus of this paper will be on his pre and post-Nobel plays.

Keywords: Wole Soyinka, power drive, Nobel Prize for Literature, satire.

Anna Kronenberg

Polish women’s emigration and migrant literature – from social to literary evolution

The main aim of this article is to present the phenomenon of Polish female emigration after 2004 on the basis of their rich literary works (novels, autobiographies, diaries, poetry). The emigration of women permanently changes the society: both Poland and the new homeland. This process is also reflected in their literary works: new types of heroines, new topics, themes.

Keywords: emigration, woman’s migrant literature, feminist literary criticism, gender.